Resources for Patients and Psychologists
**Disclaimer: This site may provide, or third parties may provide, links to other websites. Such links are provided for your convenience and do not reflect any endorsement by APA/SfHP with respect to the provider of such linked site, or the quality, reliability or any other characteristic or feature of the linked site. APA/SfHP is not responsible in any manner (without limitation - including any loss or injury) for any matter associated with a linked site, including the content provided or your reliance thereon. APA/SfHP makes no representations or warranties with respect to any linked site. Your use of a linked site is solely at your own risk. In addition, you should be aware that your use of any linked site is subject to the terms and conditions applicable to that site, including privacy policies (or lack thereof).
What is Pain Psychology?
Pain psychology is the study of how biological, cognitive, social, and environmental factors interact with pain responses. Pain psychology also involves using the aforementioned knowledge to provide evidence-based behavioral health treatment to patients with chronic pain, to improve their pain experiences, thought patterns, and behaviors. Clinical health psychologists and other qualified mental health professionals can deliver this treatment.
Curious why psychologists are involved in pain management? Hear Psychologist Beth Darnell, PhD provide a brief overview:
To learn more about the manner in which psychologists help with pain management, click here for a summary from APA's Help Center.
Daniel Bruns PsyD provides a thorough description of the complexities of pain and outlines the manner in which some "unexpected" treatments work.
What Should You Know to be a Competent Pain Psychologist?
Core Competencies for the Emerging Specialty of Pain Psychology (Wandner, Prasad, Ramezani, Malcore, & Kerns, 2019)
- You Should Understand the Multidimensional Nature of Pain - You should be familiar with the biopsychosocial model, being able to determine the multiple factors that influence pain for a specific person. You should possess knowledge of theories of pain. You should have familiarity with a variety of pain conditions/medical terminology used to characterize pain/medical treatments for pain. You should have the ability to communicate this understanding to professionals and patients in a coherent way.
- You Should Assess And Measure Pain Appropriately - You should have familiarity with standardized assessments to measure pain and know how to administer and interpret these assessments to inform and optimize treatment planning.
- You Should be Able to Help Patients Manage Pain - You should be able to provide patients with evidence-based mental health treatment for their pain and comorbid mental and behavioral health issues (e.g., anxiety, smoking) and collaborate with patients’ other medical providers (physicians, psychiatrists) to optimize care.
- You Should be Aware of How Contextual Variables Influence Pain - You should have knowledge of how cultural, institutional, societal, and regulatory influences affect pain perceptions and treatment.
Practice Guidelines for Chronic Pain:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality:
American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM)2017 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) Practice Guidelines for Chronic Pain. Chronic Pain. MDGuidelines. Westminster, CO: Reed Group, Ltd; 2017. Available at: www.MDGuidelines.com.
American Chronic Pain Association ACPA Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Medication and Treatment: An Integrated Guide to Physical, Behavioral and Pharmacologic Therapy. Co-Author: Darnall BD. Project Lead: Steven Feinberg, MD. ©2017 Edition
Assessments for Chronic Pain:
- Colorado Division of Workers’ Compensation List of Psychological Tests Commonly Used in the Assessment of Chronic Pain CO psych tests 2015
- List of Colorado Division of Workers' Compensation approved functional and psychological tests QPOP_Table_of_approved_tests
Spinal Cord Stimulator (SCS) Psychological Evaluation Information (Daniel Bruns)
Dan Bruns, PsyD developed an SCS Primer and Glossary as well as a great resource which outlines Spinal Cord Stimulators and Related Therapies.
Spinal Cord Stimulator Assessment Videos & Supportive Documents
Links to Important Articles and Chapters:
- The Biopsychological model of pain (Gatchel, Peng, Peters, Fuchs, & Turk, 2007)
- Clinical and Forensic Standards for the Psychological Assessment of Patients with Chronic Pain (Bruns, 2014)
- Biopsychosocial law, health care reform, and the control of medical inflation in Colorado (Bruns, Mueller, & Warren, 2012)
- Thorn. B.E. (2017). Cognitive Therapy for Chronic Pain: A Step-by-Step Guide 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Publications.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Manuals for Chronic Pain:
- Veterans Affairs CBT for Chronic Pain
- Introduction to Literacy-Adapted Materials developed by Beverly Thorn
- CBT-Learning About Managing Pain (LAMP)- Patient Workbook (Beverly Thorn)
- CBT- Learning About Managing Pain (LAMP)- Therapist Edition (Beverly Thorn)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based Books
- Living Beyond Your Pain: Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Ease Chronic Pain by Joanne Dahl and Tobias Lundgren
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based Books
- The Pain Survival Guide by Dennis Turk, PhD and Frits Winter
- The Chronic Pain Care Workbook by Michael Lewandowski, PhD
- Less Pain, Fewer Pills: Avoid the Dangers of Prescription Opioids and Gain Control Over Chronic Pain by Beth Darnall. Includes a guided, binaural relaxation audiofile and CD
- The Opioid-Free Pain Relief Kit by Beth Darnall, PhD. Includes a guided, binaural relaxation audiofile and CD
Emotional Awareness and Expression Therapy (EAET) Resources
Pain Science Book (pain education)
- Explain Pain by David Butler and Lorimer Moseley
Chronic Pain Self-Management
- Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Pain by Sandra LeFort, Lisa Webster, Kate Lorig, et al.
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)
There are several great resources for learning MBSR, Here's a link to a free resource.
Workshops and Webinars:
- APA Pain Workshop https://www.apa.org/health/pain-opioid-dependence-video-workshop
- “Psychological Approaches to Managing Pain.” Web archived, for purchase. Institute for Brain Potential. This is a 6-hour CME workshop developed and delivered by Dr. Beth Darnall. http://www.ibpceu.com/content/pdf/PMPCAS17.pdf
- “Reducing Catastrophizing to Prevent and Treat Chronic Pain” by Beth Darnall. Free and archived online: https://www.wwdpi.org/Webinars/Pages/Webinar.aspx?wbID=151 Hosted by the Work Wellness and Disability Prevention Institute of Canada.
Finding a Pain Psychologist Near You: